- First Meaning of Biblical Archeology.
- Archeology and History.
- Archeology and Religion.
- Monumental Sources.
- Literary Sources.
- I. Palestine:
- The Land and Its People.
- II. Domestic Antiquities:
- Society and Amusements.
- Pasture and Agriculture.
- Commerce and Its Methods.
- Art in Israel.
- III. Civil Antiquities:
- Post-exilian Government.
- Public Administration of Justice.
- IV. Sacred Antiquities:
- Sacred Persons, Places, and Offerings.
First Meaning of Biblical Archeology.
It was not until the sixteenth century that Carlo Sigonius (died 1584) gathered up and presented in his "De Republica Hebræorum" a discussion of sacred places, persons, and rites. This classification seemed to furnish scholars with a clue to what should be included in the term "Archeology" as applied to the Bible; so that De Wette (in 1814), followed by Ewald (in 1844), gives the first really systematic classification of the material that, up to the present time, is regarded as belonging to the field of Biblical Archeology. Even as late as Keil's work (1875), the main divisions of the subject are treated in the following order: (1) sacred antiquities; (2) domestic antiquities; and (3) civil antiquities.
The historico-critical method of investigating Old Testament history claims to have rectified a former error. It is now generally maintained that many of the records of the history of Israel originated at a date later than was formerly supposed, and that consequently many of the religious institutions, customs, and rites current among the Jews bear the marks of later ideas, conditions, and environments. It is further claimed that religious rites and customs owe their character largely to the domestic life and surroundings of a people. The recognition of this fact necessitates a reversal of the order of the themes usually included in the term "Biblical Archeology." Accordingly the present order of treatment is: (I.) Domestic Antiquities; (II.) Civil Antiquities; and (III.) Sacred Antiquities; but, as will be seen, there is still another section to add on the land of Palestine itself.
Judaic, Archeology and Biblical
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